Suggestion of Linguistics for Third Year Final Exam

3rd Year Final Exam 2021, will be held this year-2022

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@ জুমে লাইভ ক্লাস হয়।
@ ক্লাস রেকর্ড করে গ্রুপে শেয়ার করা হয়।
@ ভর্তি হলে আগের সব ক্লাস গ্রুপেই পাবে।
@ সপ্তাহে ৩ দিন ১ ঘণ্টা করে পড়ান হয়।
@ পেইড জুম সফটওয়্যার, তাই নিরবচ্ছিন ১ ঘণ্টা ক্লাস হয়
@ আইপিএস আছে, সো, বিদ্যুৎ যাওয়ার বা রেকর্ড ক্লাস হারিয়ে যাওয়ার ভয় নেই।

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Part – C

Language

  1. What is language? Discuss the major characteristics/properties of a language. [Watch Video Lecture]

Concepts of Linguistics

  1. What is linguistics? Discuss linguistics as a science? [Watch Video Lecture]
  2. Discuss the scopes/areas/branches of Linguistics. [Watch Video Lecture]
  3. Who is Chomsky? Describe his contribution to Linguistics. [Watch Video Lecture]
  4. Discuss Saussure’s contribution to linguistics/concept of language and parole. [Watch Video Lecture]

Phonetics and Phonology

  1. What is Phonetics? Discuss the different branches of phonetics.
  2. Discuss different organs of speech for producing speech sound with a diagram.
  3. Discuss cardinal vowels and show their positions through a diagram.
  4. What is stress? Discuss its types and rules of stress placement in English words.
  5. What is a diphthong? Discuss the classification of English diphthong with a diagram.

Morphology

  1. Discuss the different word-formation processes in English.

Syntax

  1. What is the syntax? Discuss the scope/major syntactic processes with a diagram.
  2. What is PS grammar? Discuss the structure, function, and limitation of Phrase Structure Grammar.

Semantics

  1. What is semantics? Provide an analysis of major lexical relations?
  2. Discuss the types of lexical relationships.

Pragmatics

  1. What is pragmatics? How is pragmatics different from semantics?
  2. What is the cooperative principle? Discuss with reference to Grecians maxims
  3. Discuss the syntagmatic and paradigmatic concepts of language.

Discourse Analysis

  1. How is the spoken language differs from written language?

Psycholinguistics

  1. Explain the nativist theory of Noam Chomsky.
  2. Discuss the Monitor Model Theory of Stephen Krashen for L2 teaching?

Sociolinguistics

  1. Discuss the varieties of sociolinguistics.
  2. Give an account of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.
  3. Discuss the relationship between language and culture.

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Previous Questions

Question of 2020

Previosu suggestion

2020 Examination

Part- C

  1. What is language? What are the major characteristics of language?
  2. To what extent can Linguistics be considered a science?
  3. Show different stages of child language development. [got common]
  4. How is the spoken language differs from written language?
  5. Discuss the relationship between language and culture.
  6. Discuss Saussure’s concept of language and parole.
  7. Who is Chomsky? Describe his contribution to Linguistics. Explain the nativist theory.
  8. What is semantics? Provide an analysis of major lexical relations?
  9. What is Assimilation? Describe the different aspects of Assimilation. [got common]
  10. Discuss the Monitor Model Theory of Stephen Krashen?
  11. Classify English Phonemes according to their place of articulation.
  12. What is the cooperative principle? Discuss with reference to Grecians maxims
  13. What is morphology? Classify the morphemes in detail. [got common]
  14. What is IC analysis? Exemplify IC analysis through a tree diagram [got common]
  15. Give an account of the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.

Part –B(20 Marks)

  1. What is morphology?
  2. What is IC analysis?
  3. Differentiate between langue and parole.
  4. What is a diphthong? Mention eight diphthongs of the English language.
  5. Describe voiceless and voiced sounds.
  6. Differentiate between creole and pidgin.
  7. Write a note on the syntagmatic and paradigmatic relationship.
  8. Define stress and tone9. Distinguish between phonetics and phonology.
  9. In what sense language is arbitrary.
  10. Discuss code-switching
  11. Transcribe words ……. From your study guide including the previous questions.

Part- A (10 Marks)

Brief questions with answers.

Language

1.What is language?

Ans: Language is a communication system of human beings.

2. What is meant by ‘duality’?

Ans: Duality means that language is organized on two levels: physical level and meaning level.

Basic Concepts in Linguistics

3. What is linguistics?

Ans: The science of language is known as linguistics.

4. What are the branches of linguistics?

Ans: Linguistics is three branches: Descriptive, Historical, and Applied Linguistics.

5. What is phonetics?

Ans: Phonetics is the scientific study of sounds of language.

6. What is morphology?

Ans: Morphology is the study of the structure of words, i.g. the study of a minimal meaningful unit of language.

7. What is syntax?

Ans: Syntax is the combination of words into phrases and sentences.

8. What is semantics?

Ans: Semantics is the study of meaning in language.

9. What is pragmatics?

Ans: Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context.

10. What is parloe?

Ans: A term deriving from Ferdinand de Saussure that refers to language as it is spoken, contrast this with langue.

11. What is competence?

Ans: This is the abstract ability of an individual to speak the language which he/ she has learned as a native language in his/ her childhood.

12. What is performance?

Ans: Performance refers to the process of applying one’s competence in the act of speaking.

13. What is discourse analysis?

Ans: Discourse analysis is the investigation of the structure and patterning of discourse.

14. What is competence?

Ans: Competence is the knowledge of the language.

15. Who is Saussure?

Ans: Ferdinand de Saussure is the originator of the 20th-century reappearance of structuralism.

16. What are the major levels of linguistics?

Ans: The levels are: phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, graphology, lexicology, etc.

Phonetics

17. What is a sound?

Ans: A sound is the minimum segment of the pronunciation of a word.

18. What is IPA?

Ans: IPA is a system of transcribing the sounds of languages which consists of some Latin and Greek letters and a variety of additional symbols and diacritics.

19. What is airstream mechanism?

Ans: The air involving the lungs is called the airstream mechanism.

20. What is diphthong?

Ans: In diphthongs, there are two vowels together but only one peak is there.

21. What is larynx?

Ans: It is the main organ referred to as the soundbox. In the larynx, there are vocal cords.

22. What is glottis?

Ans: When the vocal cords create an opening for the air to pass through freely is called the glottis.

23. What is consonant?

Ans: A consonant is a speech sound that is pronounced with the complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

24. What is Vowel?

Ans: A vowel is a speech sound that is produced without any obstruction in the oral cavity.

25. What is allophone?

Ans: Allophone is the positional variant of the same phoneme.

26. What are the cardinal vowels?

Ans: Cardinal vowels are a system of 8 vowels that was originally developed by English phonetician Daniel Jones.

27. What is the smallest phonetic or phonological unit?

Ans: Phone or Phoneme.

28. What is phone?

Ans: Phone means ‘sound or voice’.

29. How many consonant sounds are there in English?

Ans: There are 24 consonants.

30. What does RP stand for?

Ans: RP stands for Received Pronunciation. 31. What is tonic stress?

Ans: Tonic stress is an extra strong stress on words to show special focus.

32. Define voicing.

Ans: Speech sounds that are produced with the vocal cords vibrating are called voicing.

33. How many vowel sounds are there in English?

Ans: There are 20 vowel sounds in English: pure vowels – 12 and diphthongs – 8.

34. How many monophthongs are there in English?

Ans: There are twelve monophthongs in English. These are – /i:/, /i/, /e/, /ӕ/, /ə/, /ʒ:/, /ʌ/, /a/, /ɐ/, /ɔ:/, /ʊ/, and /u:/.

35. Name the passive articulators.

Ans: The passive articulators are upper lip, upper jaw, teeth ridge, hard and soft palate, and uvula.

36. What are the branches of phonetics?

Ans: There are three branches of phonetics. These are:

  • Articulatory Phonetics – Production of speech sounds
  • Acoustic Phonetics – Transmission of speech sounds
  • Auditory Phonetics – Perception of speech sounds.

37. What are alveolar consonants?

Ans: Alveolar consonants are produced when the blade of the tongue articulates with the alveolar ridge.

38. What are bilabial sounds?

Ans: The sounds made by the two lips are called bilabial. e.g. /m/, /p/, /b/.

Phonology

39. What is tone?

Ans: A tone is a syllable that initiates a contrast in pitch level or direction.

40. What is primary stress?

Ans: The stronger degree of stress is called primary.

41. What is secondary stress?

Ans: The weaker degree of stress is called primary.

42. What is phonology?

Ans: Phonology is the study of the sound system of one or more languages.

43. What is syllable?

Ans: A syllable is a word or part that has one vowel sound.

44. What is stress?

Ans: Stress is the acoustic prominence of a syllable in a word.

45. What is intonation?

Ans: Intonation is a pattern of changing pitch during an utterance to convey linguistic information.

46. What is assimilation?

Ans: Assimilation is a linguistic process by which a sound becomes similar to an adjective sound.

47. What is elision?

Ans: Elision is defined as the disappearance of a sound.

48. What is phoneme?

Ans: Phoneme is the smallest contrastive linguistic unit that may bring about a change of meaning.

49. What is a minimal pair?

Ans: Minimal pair is a pair of two words in a language which differ from each other by only one distinctive sound and which also differ in meaning.

Morphology

50. What is morpheme?

Ans: Allomorphs are the different forms of a single morpheme.

51. What is free morpheme?

Ans: A free morpheme is a morpheme that can stand alone as an independent word.

52. What is bound morpheme?

Ans: A bound morpheme cannot stand alone as an independent word, but must be attached to another word.

53. What is borrowing?

Ans: Borrowing involves copying a word from another language.

54. What is suffix and prefix?

Ans: Suffixes are bound morphemes attached to the end of the word. Prefixes are bound morphemes attached to the beginning of the word.

55. What is a zero allomorph?

Ans: Zero allomorph is an inflection in nouns or verbs presumed to be present although invisible.

56. What is bound stem?

Ans: A bound stem is a stem that cannot occur as a separate word apart from any other morpheme.

Syntax

57. What is syntax?

Ans: Syntax is the study of sentence structure.

58. What are the syntactic units?

Ans: The syntactic units are words, phrases, clauses, and sentences.

59. What is sentence?

Ans: Sentence is the basic unit of syntax.

60. What is deep structure?

Ans: Deep structure is the underlying meaning of the sentence.

61. What is recursion?

Ans: Rules can be applied more than once in generating sentences.

62. What is IC?

Ans: An immediate constituent (IC) is any one of the largest grammatical units that constitute a construction.

63. What does IC stand for?

Ans: IC is an abbreviation of the immediate constituent.

64. What is P-marker?

Ans: The representation of the Phrase structure of a sentence is known as its ‘phrase marker’.

65. What is UG?

Ans: Universal Grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics. Semantics

66. What is an acronym?

Ans: An acronym is a kind of abbreviation.

67. What is a hyponym?

Ans: When the meaning of one form is included in the meaning of another, the relationship is known as hyponymy.

Pragmatics

68. What is speech acts?

Ans: The philosopher J.L. Austin claims that many utterances are equivalent to actions.

Discourse analysis

69. What is discourse analysis?

Ans: Discourse analysis is the functional analysis of discourse.

70. What is cohesion?

Ans: Cohesion is a grammatical relationship between parts of a sentence essential for its interpretation.

71. What is coherence?

Ans: Coherence is the relationship that links the meaning of utterances and sentences.

72. What is schema?

Ans: Schema is a stored body of knowledge. Psycholinguistics

73. What is Psycholinguistics?

Ans: Psycholinguistics is the study of language with reference to human psychology.

74. What is LAD?

Ans: LAD is a Language Acquisition Device.

75. What is SLA?

Ans: Second-language acquisition (SLA) is the process by which people learn a second language.

76. What is language acquisition?

Ans: Language acquisition is the process by which children acquire knowledge about their native language in their early childhood.

Sociolinguistics

77. What is sociolinguistics?

Ans: Sociolinguistics is the study of the use of language in society.

78. What is idiolect?

Ans: Idiolect is the language of an individual as opposed to that of a group.

79. What is Creole

Ans: Creole is a term used to describe a pidgin after it has become the mother tongue of a certain population.

80. What is accent?

Ans: Accent refers to the pronunciation of a dialect, i.e. it is a reference to the collection of phonetic features which allow a speaker to be identified regionally or socially.

81. What is register?

Ans: A register is a subset of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

82. What is dialect?

Ans: Dialect is any regional, social or ethnic variety of a language.

83. What is isogloss?

Ans: Isogloss is a boundary line between places or regions that differ in a particular linguistic feature such as the pronunciation of a vowel.

Extra

84. What is motivation?

Ans: Motivation is the psychological duality that leads people to achieve a goal.

85. What is first language?

Ans: First language is the native language of the learner.

86. What is clipping?

Ans: Clipping is a process of cutting words into shorter ones.

87. Difine ‘Sign’.

Ans: A sign is something that has a meaning.

88. How does semantics differ from pragmatics?

Ans: Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context. Semantics is the study of the meaning without reference to the context.